One important nutrient in a cat’s diet is often overlooked: water. If an animal (or a human) doesn’t get sufficient water, all the other nutrients become moot. Cats’ bodies are sixty to seventy percent water, and fresh, clean water should be available to them at all times. When cats don’t drink enough water, they’re susceptible to many health problems. Most cats can only go three or four days without water before becoming seriously dehydrated.
How often do you see your cat drink? The amount a cat needs to drink to stay healthy depends on several factors. Age, health conditions, and environmental temperature can all make a cat need to drink more water than usual. Even the type of food he eats may make a difference in how much water he needs to drink.
Sometimes, cats don’t drink as much water as they should to stay healthy. There are a few common reasons why and also strategies to get your companion to drink more. You’ll need to know how to tell if he’s getting dehydrated. If he’s not drinking enough water for more than a day or two, he’ll need to be seen by your veterinarian.
How Long Can A Cat Go Without Water?
Healthy cats in typical household situations can only go three to four days without water before beginning to experience systemic failures due to dehydration.
Animals can go much longer without food, close to two weeks, than they can without water. A cat may show signs of dehydration just 24 hours after not getting enough water. Extreme heat can shorten this period for outdoor cats, so be sure there’s clean, cool water available. Be sure they have shade to which to retreat when the temperatures soar. In frigid weather, be sure the water you provide for your outdoor cats doesn’t freeze.
In general, cats should have access to water at all times and should be encouraged to drink enough to maintain proper hydration.
Why Do Cats Need Water?
Every function in a cat’s body is based on water. Water is necessary to regulate body temperature, maintain proper electrolyte balance, digest food, lubricate joints, and deliver oxygen and nutrients to the organs in the body. If cats aren’t adequately hydrated, these functions can break down.
Cats need roughly four ounces of water per five pounds of lean body weight. So a ten-pound cat needs around eight ounces, or one cup, of water each day. Water doesn’t leave the body only through urination. Even the humidity in exhaled breath is water lost. When water loss increases, water intake needs to increase at a corresponding rate to maintain stasis. If a cat goes three days without water, he may be in crisis.
Dehydration In Cats
When a cat becomes dehydrated, all the body functions that require water begin to work suboptimally even before they fail. If a cat doesn’t drink enough water, he’s more likely to develop urinary stones. The kidneys aren’t able to flush toxins from the body. If we don’t remedy the situation, they begin to lose circulation, and organ function is compromised. They lose the ability to regulate their body temperature. They may develop heart arrhythmia. Eventually, neurological problems ensue.
Signs That Your Cat Is Dehydrated
If your cat is not getting enough water, you’ll be able to notice some visible symptoms.
- Dry mouth and gums
- Lack of skin elasticity (skin does not bounce back when pinched)
- Sunken eyes
- Loss of appetite
- Lethargy or weakness
- Increased heart rate
Preventing Dehydration In Cats
- Provide access to clean, fresh water at all times.
- Encourage your cat to drink more water by providing multiple water bowls in different areas of the house or adding a water fountain.
- Add moisture to your cat’s diet by feeding wet food or adding water to dry food.
- Monitor your cat’s water intake and check for any changes in behavior or appetite that may indicate a need for increased fluids.
- Watch the litter box to see what the urine output is. If you have more than one cat, offer an additional litter box so you can observe the dehydrated kitty more accurately.
Health Problems That Cause Dehydration
Ironically, some things that can happen when a cat becomes dehydrated can also make him less likely to drink enough water. You’ll have to determine which came first, not drinking or him feeling poorly. Your cat may be caught in a downward cycle. Cats may not drink enough if they’re weakened or have appetite loss from illness. If their teeth hurt from dental problems, they’ll avoid drinking. If they have limited access to water indoors or out due to a lack of water sources or territorial issues, they won’t have the opportunity to drink as they should. Sometimes, a disease causes dehydration as a byproduct of its effect on the body.
Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is mainly a problem in older cats. Generally, by the time symptoms of kidney failure develop, the damage has been happening for months or even years. Some early signs of kidney failure, like poor coat health and weight loss, mirror what can occur naturally with aging. With CKD, the kidneys filter less efficiently. Cats produce more urine, and it is more diluted. Cats usually drink more to compensate for the increased fluid loss.
If diagnosed early enough, you can manage the disease with special diets, phosphate binders, antibiotics, potassium supplementation, vitamins B and C, anti-vomiting medications, drugs to lower blood pressure, and drugs to initiate the production of red blood cells. When properly managed, kidney disease progresses slowly, and you may have many more years with your best friend.
Diabetes is characterized by the body producing an insufficient amount of insulin, not adequately responding to the insulin available, or both. Glucose in the bloodstream becomes dangerously high and ends up in the urine. The kidneys won’t retain water normally, and your cat will produce excessive amounts of urine. To compensate, he’ll drink excessively. Because diabetic cats can’t use blood glucose for energy, they lose weight and muscle mass. See your veterinarian if your cat shows excessive urination and thirst symptoms. The test for diabetes is straightforward, and you can discuss treatment options.
Unfortunately, cats with Type II diabetes won’t get better from dietary changes alone. They need insulin injections. Insulin combined with a diabetic-specific diet will allow your cat to live a relatively normal life. Although damaged kidneys don’t heal, the goal of treatment is to maintain a blood glucose level to eliminate the symptoms of diabetes, namely excessive drinking, urination, and weight loss.
If your cat is vomiting, he’s losing fluids. A cat will vomit on occasion for any number of reasons, but if he’s vomiting more than once a week or has other symptoms, call the vet to determine the cause and get supportive care. Depending on the diagnosis, your cat may need fluids subcutaneously or intravenously to support him as he recovers.
Feline diarrhea may be self-resolving or could be a symptom of a more severe problem. Diarrhea causes ingested food and water to move too quickly through the cat’s digestive system. It can cause an imbalance of electrolytes and insufficient absorption of nutrients and water. If your cat’s diarrhea lasts more than a couple of days with no apparent cause, like a change in food, or there is concurrent lethargy, loss of appetite, or lethargy, see your veterinarian to rule out a more serious issue.
We hear more about hypothyroidism, but hyperthyroidism is common in older cats. The thyroid gland overproduces thyroid hormone, which increases metabolism. The most common symptom is weight loss despite increased appetite. Increased thirst and water intake cause increased urination. Eventually, the cat will look unthrifty and act restless and out of sorts. Although the cause is unknown, there may be a connection to dietary iodine. Your vet can test your cat’s thyroid levels, and if they suggest hyperthyroidism, determine the best course of treatment. Treatments include surgery, oral medication, radioactive iodine, or a prescription diet with very low iodine.
If your cat is on medication, he may appear more thirsty than usual (you can fill his water bowl with a measuring cup and monitor daily intake so you can give your veterinarian accurate information); touch base with your veterinarian to see if this is a normal side effect. Medications such as diuretics, steroids, and some anti-seizure drugs will make your cat more thirsty, and he’ll drink more water. Some medicines, like Metacam, could cause kidney failure as a side effect, so if you see increased thirst, consult your veterinarian immediately for further instructions.
How To Increase A Cat’s Water Intake
If you want to ensure your cat is drinking enough water, keep it fresh. Some cats even prefer running water to still so that special drinking fountains or slow feeders will pique their interest. If you’re a multiple-cat family, ensure the water dish isn’t in “territory” your dominant cat considers theirs. Your cats need access, so numerous food and water bowls in various parts of your home may be necessary.
Too much dry cat food can also lead to dehydration and kidney malfunction. Feeding wet food or adding a little water to dry cat food can increase water intake, but only if it doesn’t make the food unpalatable. Adding a bit of tuna or canned food juice to the water may make it more appealing to him, but be sure to change your water frequently and thoroughly wash any film from his bowl so bacteria doesn’t grow.
Personal Experience With Cat Dehydration
“My cat Ace was sadly diagnosed with kidney failure. We had no signs he was sick until one day, he started acting sluggish and slow. After observing him, it was clear he was not drinking. We took him to the vet within the first day of noticing his behavior changes. Ace turned out to be very dehydrated and going through severe kidney failure. I advise all cat owners to be diligent. If your cat is not drinking water, do not hesitate to get them care. it may just save their lives.”–Danielle DeGroot, Love Your Cat Writer and longtime cat owner
Frequently Asked Questions?
Can a cat go 24 hours without water?
Cats can go 24 hours without water, but they may start to experience some mild dehydration symptoms. 24 hours is enough time for a cat to start to have an electrolyte imbalance, loss of energy, poor appetite, sunken eyes, and other symptoms.
What happens if my cat doesn’t drink water for 3 days?
This scenario requires prompt veterinary attention. Your cat is already dehydrated, and the damage will only get worse. A cat not drinking enough is an indicator that there may be a more serious underlying medical issue. Get your cat care as soon as possible. While you do that, push fluids like water, tuna juice, bone broth, and wet food to try and get some moisture in your cat’s body. You can try offering small drinks through a dropper.
Is a dehydrated cat an emergency?
Yes, it can be. A cat refusing to drink for over 24 hours is a sign something is wrong. It is best to err on the side of caution and get your cat treatment as soon as possible. Panting, sunken eyes, dry mouth, constipation, panting, and loose skin elasticity are all indicators your kitty needs more water. Keep a close eye on your pet and call the vet as soon as you suspect a problem.
I’ve heard cats can go up to two weeks without water. Is this true?
This is not true. A cat can only go a few days without water. In extreme cases, an individual cat may survive up to two weeks or more, but this is rare. Their bodies will start to shut down long before that.
Because cats can go for such a short period of time without water before having serious health problems, make sure you check their water source daily. If you go on vacation and leave your pets at home, be sure your pet sitter knows the locations of all the bowls to clean and refill. If your cat stops drinking or is losing fluids from vomiting or diarrhea, consult your veterinarian. Don’t take a wait-and-see attitude when it comes to dehydration. Remember, three days can be the difference between life and death.